What is referencing?
Referencing is a standardised
method of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas you have used
in any written work. At the end of your written work, you need to include a list of
references or bibliography of materials used in writing the piece.
The most important aspects of using any style are consistency and
Why do I need to reference?
What do I need to reference?
Order of References in the Reference List or Bibliography
The list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames.
If a reference has no author,
list it alphabetically according to the title. Ignore the words 'A' and
'The' at the beginning of a title.
If there are two references by
the same author, list them in order of publication date with the older one
If references by the same author have been published in the same year, list them alphabetically by title. Letters a, b, etc. are placed after the year, e.g. (2008a), (2008b).
Bibliographic details are given
Sample two: VNM Preferred
The surname ( if known) of the writer goes first. eg...John Smith becomes
Smith, John. Note the comma between the surname and the first name.
2. Following the surname and first names (western methods) goes the year in which it was written inside brackets like this ( ) eg. Farah, Joseph (2002)
3. Following the year is the title of the article using upper case letters for words longer than 2 letters long.
4. Under the title is a line
5. The title is inside speech marks like this " ... "
6. Following the title goes the publisher.
7. Following the publisher goes the city and country.
8. Specific page numbers are then listed if necessary and other details of the date.
Then lastly the list goes in alphabetical order .
Book with single author:
Reynolds, H. (2000). Black
Pioneers. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin.
Book with multiple authors
Two to six authors:
Gilbert, R. & Gilbert, P.
(1998). “Masculinity Goes to School”. St. Leonards,
Allen & Unwin, N.S.W.
More than six authors:
After the sixth author's name
and initials, use et al. to indicate the remaining authors.
Book with editor (s):
Broinowski, A. (Ed.). (1990).
“ASEAN Into the 1990s”. Macmillan, London.
Nugent, S.L. & Shore, C.
(Eds.). (1997). “Anthropology and Cultural Studies”,
Pluto Press, London.
Book, author unknown:
“Longman Dictionary of the
English language” (1984). Harlow, Longman, Essex.
Book with author and editor:
Valéry, P. (1957). “Oeuvres”
(J. Hytier, Ed.). Gallimard, Paris.
Book other than first
Goudie, A. (2000) “The
Human Impact on the Natural Environment” (5th ed.). Blackwell,
Book with more than one
Corsini, R.J. (Ed.). (1994) “Encyclopedia of Psychology” (4 vols). J. Wiley & Sons, New York.
Topliss, H. (1985) “Tom
Roberts 1856 - 1931: A Catalogue Raisonné: Vol.2 Plates”, Oxford
University Press, Melbourne.
Book with corporate author:
Dames & Moore. (1995) “Environmental
Management Plan: Townsville Field Training Area”. Author,
Chapter or Article in a Book
Bibliographic details are
given as follows:
Fontana, A. & Frey, J.
(1994). Interviewing: The Art of Science. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln
(Eds.), “Handbook of Qualitative Research”. (pp.
361-376). Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Beck, W. (1994). Food
Processing. In D.Horton (Ed.), “The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal
Australia: Vol. 1.” (pp. 380-382). Aboriginal Studies Press,
Bibliographic details are
given as follows:
Rogers, G. (1999). Reflections
on Teaching Remote and Isolated Children. “Education in Rural
Australia, 9(2)”, 65-68.
Lawlor, A. (2000, July 20). Phoenician 'find' makes textbooks ancient history, “The Courier Mail”, p. 3.
Gleeson, L. (1996). Inside
looking out. In “Claiming a Place: Proceedings from the Third
National Conference of the Children's Book Council of Australia”
(pp. 22-34). D.W. Thorpe, Port Melbourne.
Abbott, K. & Seymour, J.
(1997, September 20). “Trapping the Papaya Fruit Fly in North
Queensland”. Paper presented at the Australian Entomological
Society Conference, Melbourne.
Ward, I. (1998) “Sedimentary
History of the Pandora Wreck and Surrounds”. Unpublished master's
thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.
Queensland. Queensland Health.
(1992) “Towards a Women's Health Policy: Social Justice for Women,”
Australian Bureau of
Statistics. (1994) “Building Approvals Australia”, (No.
8731.0). Author, Canberra.
Two entries by same author,
Allan, M. S. (1983a). Uses of
video recording in an institution. In McGovern, J. (Ed.), “Video
applications in English language teaching” (pp. 83-93). London:
Allan, M. S. (1983b). Viewing
comprehension with video. “ELT Journal”, 37(1), 23-27.
Work with multiple authors
Follow the same rules for
journals and other works as for Book with Multiple Authors
Collins, J. (1993). Immigrant families in Australia. “Journal of Comparative Family Studies”, 24, 291-315. Abstract obtained from Multicultural Education Abstracts, 1995, 14, Abstract No. 95M/064.
For example, letters, memos, email, interviews, telephone conversation.
Because they don't provide
recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the
reference list. Cite in text only.
M. Jones (personal
communication, April 4, 2002)
Electronic sources include
databases, online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgroups, email
Journal article retrieved
from an aggregated database
Dixon, M. R. & Hayes, L. J.
(1999). A behavioural analysis of dreaming . “Psychological Record,
49”, 605-612. Retrieved August 30, 2001, from Expanded Academic ASAP
Internet article based on a
Sherry, A. (2000). Building the
Bridge: Taking Feminism into the Twenty-First Century (Electronic
version). “Australian Feminist Studies”, 15, 221-226.
Article in an internet-only
DeMarie, D. (2001, Spring). A
Trip to the Zoo: Children's words and photographs. “Early Childhood
Research and Practice”, 3(1). Retrieved August 30, 2001, from
Ludwig, D. N. (1996). Preschool
children's cognitive styles and their social orientations. “Perceptual
and Motor Skills”, 70, 915-921. Abstract retrieved January
25, 1997, from PsycINFO database.
“The Mariner 2002:
Undergraduate Student Information” (2002). Retrieved 3 April, 2002,
from James Cook University Web site: http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/ns/Notices/General/Mariner/Contents.html
Information from a Website
Australian Bureau of Statistics
(2000) “1996 Census of Population and Housing: Northern (Statistical
Division) Queensland”, [Data file]. Available from the Australian
Bureau of Statistics site, http://www.abs.gov.au
Use 'Available from' to
indicate that the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited
material, rather than to the material itself.
York, F. A. (1990) “Children's
Songs of the Torres Strait Islands” [Cassette recording]. Owen
Martin, Bateman's Bay, N.S.W.
Diamond, N. (1970) Cracklin'
Rosie. “On Tap Root Manuscript” [Record], MCA, Universal City,
Loi, M-A. (1997) “Green
Tree Frogs”, [Illustration], Queensland Department of Environment,
Scorsese, M. (Producer), &
Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000) “You Can Count on me”
[Motion picture], Paramount Pictures, United States.
Citing in the Text
When you include information
from another source in your essay, you need to acknowledge it in the text.
You should include the author, year and sometimes the page number. The
person reading your essay can then refer to the bibliography/reference
list at the end, and see exactly where you found your information.
Quoting directly from
When you borrow or quote someone else's words, the quote is usually placed in quotation marks, e.g.
This is reflected in the idea
that "schools of thought, methodologies and research techniques
reflect their social origins." (Hayes, 1995, p. 53)
Using a very long quote
If it is a very long quote (more than 40 words), you can place it in a freestanding indented paragraph starting on a new line. In this case, you don't need to use quotation marks. Insert three full stops - ... - if any words are omitted.
Children are, and have been,
economically important to adults/parents in several ways. For those with
wealth and land, children, and boys in particular, are and have been
crucial ... as heirs. Inheritance, or course, has also been of central
political importance; many of the wars that raged through medieval Europe
focused on contested inheritance of lands and kingdoms (Gittins, 1998, p.
Source not quoted exactly as
it was written
Sometimes you might paraphrase
or summarise another author's ideas to back up your own statements. Often
you are not quoting them directly. Remember though, if you are using their
ideas or data, you still must give them the credit. E.g. Schwarz (1999)
questions the use of surveys as measurement devices.
It is argued by Bazzaz (1996)
that comparative research in several ecosystems will lead to an
understanding of succession as an ecological process.
Quoting something that
someone else has quoted
Sometimes in your reading you
might come across a quote in another author's article that would be
suitable to use. In this case, the best idea is to try and find the
original quote to examine the context in which it was written. If that
isn't possible, there are special rules for 'quoting a quote'.
Wembley (1997, cited in Olsen,
1999, p. 156) argues that impending fuel shortages give added impetus to
developing alternative energy sources.
Include the author and year of
both texts, and the page of the citation you are quoting from. Use the
words 'cited in' which means 'mentioned in'. In your reference list or
bibliography you only include the text that you yourself have read, i.e.
Olsen would be listed in the reference list from this example.
One Work by Multiple Authors
If a work has two authors, always cite both names every time.
(Griffiths & Clyne, 1988)
If a work has three, four or
five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. After
that include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.,
and the year if it is the first citation in the paragraph.
(Muspratt, Luke & Freebody,
If a work has six or more
authors, cite only the surname of the first author, followed by et al.
and the year for all citations.
Citing Electronic References
Dixon and Hayes (1999) or
(Dixon & Hayes, 1999)
Sherry (2000) or
DeMarie (2001) or (DeMarie,
The Mariner 2002 (2002) or (The Mariner 2002, 2002)
First text citation:
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2000)
(Some group authors would be
written in full every time, e.g. University of Sydney)
Smith (2001) or (Smith,
Footnotes are usually an elaboration of an afterthought on some aspect of the text or they provide further information, which would interrupt the flow of the text if placed in the body of the text. If you decide to include a footnote, place it at the bottom of the page and separate it by a ruled line from the main text.
A superscript number in the
text will be used to reference the footnote at the bottom of the page.
Footnotes should be numbered consecutively through the text. [See APA
Referencing Al Quoran
Preferably the original Arabic
translation is included in either Arabic script or transliteration.
The translation of al quoran
used is to be named as well as the Ayat and the Surah.
Preferably the ayat before and
the ayat after the one being discussed, should also be included within the
Preferably more than one translation of the English Quorans should be quoted such as:
Use a commentary such as:
Commentary Into The Light of the Holy Quoran” By a group of Muslim
Scholars in Isfahan, Iran.
All hadiths need to be
referenced with the source as well as its chain of narrations preferably.
hadiths are not clearly referenced, they will be deleted by the Editor.
adapted from James Cook University, Cairns, North Queensland, Australia.