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Bismillah ir Rahman ir Raheem
Published on 5th November, 2002

A Momin's Obligations for Ramadan

By M. Al Zahra

d Introduction

d Fasting

d Al-Quoran

d Duas, Supplicaions and Salat

d Moon Sighting Dua

Medan by night. By S.Abidin

d Iftaar (Breaking Fast)

d Every night Aa’-maal

d Day and Night Aam’-aal

d Day Aa’-maal

d Zakat Fitr

Introduction

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The holy month of Ramadan is particularly important as it the Holy Month in the Islamic calendar. 

The Holy Prophet ('s) said:

“It is Allah's own month. O People! In this month, beyond a shadow of a doubt, the doors of everlasting bliss and happiness are thrown open…”

“In this month you are the guests of Allah, enjoying His hospitality, you are among His favourites, your breathing is 'praise of Allah', your sleep is His worship, your prayers receive His approval, your invocations are sanctioned. So, sincerely, free from evil and sinful thoughts and actions, with clear conscious, pray and request that He may give your heart and confidence to observe fast and recite the Holy Quoran and Dua’a throughout this month.”

Fasting

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Fasting is one of the important pillars of Islam and the month of Ramadan is the month during which fasting has been made obligatory for all adults and sane Muslims.

“O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, 
that ye may (learn) self-restraint, (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; 
but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. 
For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. 
But he that will give more, of his own free will, it is better for him. 
And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.”
 
(2:183-184)

By fasting during Ramadan, Momins meet one of the obligations required of them by Allah (swt) and henceforth become entitled to great reward in the Hereafter, insh’Allah. Any lapse in Islamic obligations amounts to sin. Fasting is a form of worship and Allah alone rewards that person for it on the Day of Judgment.

Al-Quoran

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The blessings of Ramadan are not only limited to fasting as the performance of  many deeds and worship during this month are counted and rewarded with great Divine favour.

One of these most important acts is the recitation of the Holy Quoran as the revelation of the Holy Quoran commenced during this month of Ramadan.

“Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). 
So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, 
but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. 
Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. 
(He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; 
and perchance ye shall be grateful.” 
(2:185)

It is therefore the responsibility of every Momin to read and recite the Holy Quoran during the month of Ramadan. It brings peace to the mind and imparts purity to the soul.

Abstaining from Desires

Ramadan, being the month of fasting, night prayers, abstinence from desires and Divine worship, requires devout Momins to fasts during the day and exercise control over his/her words, eyes, ears, body, lusts, thoughts and deeds and do everything possible to seek the pleasure of Allah.

Repentance From Sins

Sincere supplications and Duas to Allah and repentance of one's sins during Ramadan are the sources of Divine blessings and mercy. Great blessings are granted especially on the nights of Layltul Qadr, being the 19th, 21st, and 23rd nights of Ramadan where Momins offer special prayers and Supplications.

Duas, Supplications and Salat for Ramadan

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Moon Sighting Dua:

When the crescent is sighted, turn towards Qiblah, raising hands towards the sky and recite the following:

“Rabbee wa rabbukallaahu rabbul a’alameen allaahumma ahillahoo a’laynaa bil-amni waleemaani was salaamati wal islaami wal musaara-a’tilaa maa tuh’ibbu wal tarz’aa allaahumma baarik lanaa fee sharinaa haad’aa war-zuqnaa khayrahoo wa  a’wnahoo was’rif a’naa z’urrahoo wa sharrahoo wa balaaa’ahoo wa fitnatahoo.”

“My Lord and your Lord is Allah, the Lord of the worlds. O Allah for us let this month be a period of peace, faith safety and total submission to Thy will; make us walk apace swiftly to that which Thou likes and approves. O Allah pour out much blessings on us in this month, make available for us its generous good and assistance, and keep us safe from the harm, evil, misfortune and mischief that may try to trap us in this month.”

Dua of Imam Zayn al Abidin ('a.) for the Beginning of Ramadan:

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~zaynabelfatah/DuaaComingRamadhan.htm

The Niyyat (Intent) for keeping fast for Ramadan

The fasts of the month of Ramadan are obligatory so when the Crescent is sighted we should declare to ourselves that, we will keep all fasts during this month “wajib qurbatan ilallah”, that is to attain nearness to Allah.

Moon Sighting Dua

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It is obligatory to sight the first moon of Ramadan. When the crescent is sighted, turn towards Qiblah, raising hands towards the sky, address it as follows: -

Rabee wa rabbukallaahu rabbul a’alameen allaahumma ahillahoo a’laynaa bil-amni wal eemaani was salaamati wal islaami wal musaara-a ‘ti ilaa maa tuh’ibbu wal tarz’aa allaahumma baarik lanaa fee sharinaa haad’aa war-zuqnaa khayrahoo wa a’wnahoo was’rif a’nnaa z’urrahoo wa sharrahoo wa balaaa-ahoo wa fitnatahoo.”

“My Lord and your Lord is Allah, the Lord of the worlds. O Allah for us let this month be a period of peace, faith safety and total submission to Thy will; make us walk apace swiftly to that which Thou likes and approves. O Allah pour out much blessings on us in this month, make available for us its generous good and assistance, and keep us safe from the harm, evil, misfortune and mischief that may try to trap us in this month.”

  •  The Holy Prophet ('s) used to recite the Dua’a on pg. 417 (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi)

  • Recite Dua’a ul Hilaal pg. 418 (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi)  

  • Take a Ghusl bath ( it is recommended to bathe in a flowing river if possible and cup 30 handfuls of water over the head)  

  • Recite Ziyaarat Imam Hussayn ('a)

Aa’-maal for the Month of Ramadan is specified into four categories:

  1. Night Aa’-maal (for every night)  

  2. Common day and night Aa’-maal (throughout the month)

  3. Day Aa’-maal (for every day)  

  4. Date-wise Aa’-maal (from the 1st to the 30th)

Sah’ariyy (Sahur) Before daybreak

Morning Meal and Niyyat for Fasting and eat dates, milk, food and / or water to start the fast for the day. The time for the completion of your morning meal is about ten minutes before 'Salat ul Fajr', which is about 80 minutes before sunrise. Always eat dates, food or water before fasting because it is 'Sunnat-e-Moakada' and it distinguishes us from other religions.

The Dua’a mentioned in "Misbah" and "Iqbal", for the time of Dawn is as follows:

“Yaa mafza-e’e I’dna kurbatee wa yaa ghawthee I’nda shiddatee ilayka fazia tu wa bikastaghath-tu wa bika lud’tu laa alood’u bi-swaaka wa laa at’lubul faraja illaa minka fa’fghithnee wa farrij a’nnee yaa man yaqbalulyaseer wa yaa-foo a’nil katheer iqbal minnil yaseera eaa’-fu a’nnil katheer innaka antal ghafoorur rah’eem allaahumma innee ad-aluaka eemaanan tubaashiru bihee qalbee wa yaqeenan h’ataa aa’-lama annahhu lan yus’eebanee illaa maa katabta lee was raz’z’inee minal a’yshi binaa wasamta lee yaa arh’smar raah’imeen yaa u’ddatee fee kurbatee wa yaa s’aah’ibee fee shiddatee wa yaa waliyyee fee nia’-matee wa yaa ghaayatee fee reghbatee antas saa tiru a’wratee wal aaminu roo-a’tee wal muqeelu a’thratee faghfirlee khateee-atee yaa arh’amar rah’imeen.”

“O my Ultimate Sanctuary when troubles surround me!
O my Last Hope when difficulties trouble me!
Unto Thee I turn to, before Thee I stand to get help, with Thee I take refuge, except Thee there is no refuge;
I do not seek joy after sorrow from anyone save Thee, so come to my help and free me from cares.
O He who accept even the smallest (efforts) but excuses from restrictions, accept whatever little there is and release from hardships frequently, Verily Thou art Oft-forgiving, Merciful.
O Allah I ask for the faith which gives joy, satisfaction and confidence to my heart till I am positively aware that I will not have my fill unless it has been approved for me, and happiness will agree with me only whereby justly and fairly distributed, O the Most Merciful.
O my "means" in my troubles!
O my Companion in my difficulties!
O my Guardian in my happiness!
O the ultimate of my inclinations!
Thou covers up my shortcomings, affords security in the event of crisis end fearful disasters, therefore, overlook my transgressions, O the Most Merciful.”

2.Recite Surah Al Qadr

3. Recite Dua’a Imam Muhammad bin Ali Al Baqir ('a)  (“Supplications, Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I      Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 326)

4. Recite Dua’a Imam Ali bin Hussayn Al Zayn al Abidin ('a) (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 332)

Iftaar (Breaking Fast)

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1.Recite Dua’a:

“Allahumma laka a’umtu wa a’laa rizqika aft’artu a’layha tawakkaltu.”

“O my Allah, for Thee I fast, and with the  food Thou gives me I break the fast, and I rely on Thee.” (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi  pg. 365), or

2. Dua’a Imam Ali Amirul Monineen ('a):

“Bismillaah allaahumma laka s’umnaa wa a’laa rizqika aft’arnaa fa-taqabbal minnaa innaka antas samee-ul a’leem”

“In the name of Allah, O Allah, we fast, and with the food Thou gives us we break the fast, an obligation we fulfil, and Thou art Hearer, Knower” (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 366)

3. When taking the first mouthful recite:

“Bismillaahir rah’maanir rah’eem yaa waasi-a’l maghfirati ighfir lee”

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, O He whose indulgence is boundless, forgive me.”

4. Recite Soorah Al-Qadr

5. Give alms in the name of Allah (swt)

Every night Aa’-maal

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1.Surah Al Qadr 1000 times

2.Surah Al Dukhaan 100 times

3.Recite Dua’a pg. 366

“Allaahumma rabba shahri ramaz’aanal lad’ee anzalta feehil qur-aana waftarz’ta a’laa I’baadika feehis s’iyaama s’alli a’laa Muh’ammadin wa aali Muhammad waszuqnee h’ajia baytikal h’araam fee a’amee haad’aa wa fee kulli a’am waghfir lee tilkad’d’unoobal I’z’aam fa’innahoo laa yaghfiruhaa ghayruka yaa rah’maan yaa a’llaam.”

“O Allah, the Lord, (this is) the month of Ramazan, in it Thou revealed the Holy Quran, and in it made obligatory "fasting" upon Thy servants, send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, and provide us with the means to go to Thy Sacred House for "Hajj" this year and every year; and in this month forgive my grave sins, verily, other than Thee, no one can liberate (me) from its consequences, O Beneficent, O Omniscient.”

4. Recite Dua’a Iftitaah.” (“Supplications Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg 367)

5. Recite Dua’a .” (“Supplications Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 376)

6. Recite Dua’a Imam Jafar as Sadiq ('a) . (“Supplications Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 377)

7. Recite Dua’a . (“Supplications Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 378)

8. Perform 2 Rak’ats: in each Rak’at recite Surah Al Fatihah and then Suarah Al Ikhlass 3 times.

9.After Salam say:
”Glory be to He who watches over, never leaves anything undone, or is neglectful.
Glory be to He who is Merciful, never does a thing in haste.
Glory be to he who is vigilant, never forgets one thing over another.
Glory be to He who is alert and steady, never is engrossed with a thing so as to overlook another.” (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 378)

10.  Recite 7 times:

"Subh’aanallaahi wal h’amdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha illallaahu wallaahu akbar”

”"Glory be to Allah, (all) praise belongs to Allah, there is no god save Allah, and Allah is the greatest.”
Then say:

"Subh’aanaka subh’aanaka subh’aanaka yaa a’z’eem ighfirliyad’d’ambal a’z’eem”

"Glory be to Thee, Glory be to thee, Glory be to Thee O the Mighty, forgive my sins, one and all, altogether.”
Say ten times:

"Allaahumma s’alli a’laa Mu’hammadin’w wa aali Muh’ammad”

"O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad”

11.  In every optional salaat prayed in the night, always recite Suarah al Fat’h.

12.  Perform 1000 Rak’at as detailed below:  

  • From the 1st to the 20th every night, pray 20 Rak’ata in 10 sets of 2 Rak’ats, each 8 Rak’ats after Maghrib Salaat, and 12 Rak’ats after Ishaa Salaat.  

  • From the 21st onwards, every night, pray 30 Rak’ats in 15 sets of 2 Rak’ats, each 8 Rak’ats after Maghrib Salaat,a nd 22 Rak’ats after Ishaa Salaat. (Int his way 700 Rak’ats are completed)

  • The remaining 300 Rak’ats are prayed in the 3 nights of “Qadr”, by praying 100 Rak’ats in each night – 19th, 21st, and 23rd of Ramadan

After each set of 2 Rak’ats, recite the following:

”O Allah, while taking decisions and rendering possible things and circumstances, and determining the well thought of course of events, include me among the pilgrims of Thy “Sacred House”, whose pilgrimage receive Thy approval, whose efforts are appreciated, whose sins are forgiven, and I beseech Thee to prolong my life in Thy obedience, and give me enough means of livelihood, O the Most Mecifull (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi, pg. 380)

Day and Night Aam’-aal

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Day and Night Aam’-aals should be performed every day and every night throughout the Holy Month of Ramadan.

1) The best A’mal in it’s days and nights is the recitation of the Holy Quoran.

The Holy Prophet ('s) and the Ahlul Bait ('a) used to recite the Holy Quoran in totality every three days. Whosoever recites a full recital of the Holy Quoran in the Holy Month of  Ramadan, and submits as Hidiyaa, to any of the Fourteen Infallibles ('a), will find him/herself in the company of that Maa’soom on the day of Judgement.

2) Recite as much as possible the following:

  • “Laa ilaaha illallaah”  

  • “Allaahumma s’alli a’laa Muh’ammadin wa aali Muh’ammad”  

  • “Astaghfirullaha rabee wa atoobi ilayh”

3) Pray “day and night nawaafil” regularly

4) Recite Dua’a after every obligatory Salaat (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg.381)

  • Imam Jafar as Sadiq ('a) (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 383)  

  • The Holy Prophet ('s) (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 383)

5) Recite Dua’as after Maghrib – Imam Jafar as Sadiq ('a) pg. 384

Day Aa’-maal

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Aa’-maal is to be performed on every day throughout the Holy Month of Ramadan.

1) Shaykh Mufeed reports on the authority of Imam Muhammad bin Ali Al Taqi ('a) to recite  the Dua’a on pg. 386, OR, Recite Dua’a from Syaykh Kafaa’mee on pg. 387

2) Recite 100 times:
”Glory be to He who can (at His will) expose (anyone) to loss or gain. Glory be to He who decides justly. Glory be to the Highest High. Glory be to Him. Praise to be Him. Glory be to Him. Let Him be praised.”(“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 387)

3) Recite “Durood” (Salawaat) many times a day

4) Recite Dua’a (“Supplication Prayers and Ziarats, Call on Me and I Answer You”, Shaykh Abbas Qummi pg. 387)

5) Recite the Dua’a, 3 times Pg 398

6) Then recite Dua’a pg. 399

7)  Recite the ten Tasbihaat pg. 400

8)  Recite Salawaat pg. 410

Zakat Fitr

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Allah says in the Qur'an-e-Majid that one who gives "Zakat" and remembers Him will get salvation. Here, Zakat means "Fitra" and remembrance of God means the recitation of the following Takbir on the night and morning of Eid-ul-Fitr.

"Allaaho Akbar, Allaaho Akbar, Laa ilaaha illallaah wallaaho Akbar, Allaaho Akbar, Wa lillaahil hamd. Alhamdulillah alaa maa hadaanaa walahu Shukr alaa maa aulana."

The meaning of the above is: "Allah is Great, Allah is Great there is no one worthy of prayer but Allah, and Allah is Great; Allah is Great, all praise be to Allah, it is He Who guides."

Fitr is compulsory on those who can afford it. Fitr depends on the major food items consumed by a person during the year. These may be rice, wheat, barley or dates. In weight, fitr should be three kilograms per person. It is also permissible to pay cash to the value of three kilograms of food grains.

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