caravan of al-Imam al-Husayn ('alayhi salam) was travelling
toward the city of Kufa in Iraq, during the month of Zhul Hijjah
60AH when a messenger came from the direction of Kufa and
only left Kufa after Muslim b. ‘Aqil and Hani’ b. ‘Urwa
had been killed. I saw them being dragged by their legs into
the market-place.” – Bakr al Asadi of Kufa
belong to God and to Him we shall return; may God have mercy
on them both,” uttered al-Husayn as he repeated it
several times over. The people at that halting place exhorted
al-Husayn (‘a) to not continue beyond that point and to not
travel on to the treacherous city of Kufa. Al-Husayn ('a)
turned to the brothers of Muslim who were amongst his caravan
is your opinion [O sons of ‘Aqil] now that Muslim has been
God,” they declared, “we will not go back until we
have taken our vengeance or have tasted (the death) which he
(al-Mufid, 1981, p333).
('a) went near to the former people and said, “There is
nothing good (left) in life for these men.” And thus
the decision was made to continue his journey. He (‘a)
summoned those who had joined his caravan along the way and
stated to them:
"In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
of the dreadful murder of Muslim b. ‘Aqil, Hani’ b.
‘Urwa, and ‘Abd Allah b. Yuqtur has reached us. Our
Shi’a have deserted us. Those of you who would prefer to
leave us, may leave freely without guilt." – al-Husayn (‘a).
people began to disperse from him to right and left until
there were only left with him those followers who had come
with him from Medina, and a small group of those who had
joined him. Al-Husayn ('a) had done that because he realised
that the Arabs who had followed him had only followed him
because they thought that he was going to a land where the
inhabitants’ obedience to him had already been established.
And he did not want them to accompany him without being
(fully) aware of what they were going to" (al-Mufid,
b. ‘Aqil ('a)
was one of many righteous children of ‘Aqil b. ‘Abi Talib.
He was the nephew of Amirul Momineen ‘Ali b. ‘Abi Talib
('a) and the cousin of al-Hassan and al-Husayn (‘a). He
married Ruqaiyyah al-Kubra, daughter of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib and
Sahba from Yamamah (Ahmed Ali, 1964, p207), his cousin
and sister to Imam Husayn (‘a), and had four children to
her. Of his children, Abdullah [15 years] was martyred
alongside the family of al-Husayn (‘a) on the battlefield of
Karbala (Ahmed Ali, 1964, p207). Ibrahim [10 years] and
Mohammad [8 years], known as the Tiflan
Muslim, were captured and martyred on the banks of the
Euphrates River during Dhul Hijjah before the Battle of
Karbala, and his youngest child, Ruqaiyyah [4 years], was
amongst the pious womenfolk of the household of the Prophet (‘s)
who were attacked and humiliated after the Battle
b. Abi Talib ('a)
father, ‘Aqil b. Abi Talib, was the second oldest son of Abi
Talib and the cousin of Prophet Muhammad ('s). The oldest son
of Abi Talib was Talib, followed by ‘Aqil, Jafar, ‘Ali and
reportedly his only daughter was Fakhitah, known as Umm Hani.
‘Aqil b. Abi Talib is reported as having many children. His
sons were Abd Allah, Jafar and Abd al-Rahman, who were
martyred at Karbala, Abu Sa’id, whose son was martyred at
Karbala (al-Mufid, 1981, p373), Muslim and Hisham. Of
his daughters were Zaynab, Umm Luqman, Umm Hani, Ramla and
Asma (al-Mufid, 1981, p371).
had a knowledge of 'Nasab shanasi' (acquaintance with
lineage) and had a complete knowledge of the identities and
recognition of the personages of all tribes and families
within the Arab world. He it is who Amirul Momineen ‘Ali b.
‘Abi Talib (‘a) requested to find him a wife, after the
passing of his beloved Lady Fatimah az-Zahra ('a), who would
bare him a brave and valiant son, at which ‘Aqil suggested
Fatimah Kelabiye bint Hazm b. Khalid Kalbi (Ahmed Ali,
1964, p112), known as Ummul Baneen, and
said "marry Ummul Baneen because there is no other
brave, valiant and more courageous family in Arabia than
hers" (Moosavi, 2004).
Destiny of Muslim b. 'Aqil ('a)
news of the death of the despotic caliph Mu'awiya and the dreaded
succession of his son Yazid had spread across the lands of
Arabia and was under great discussion amongst the Shias of
Kufa. In the house of Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i, a
companion of the Prophet ('s) (Ziaraat.com), a meeting was
held wherein Sulayman said:
is dead. Al-Husayn has withheld giving his pledge of
allegiance to the people (Umayyads) and has gone to Makkah.
You are his Shi'a and the Shi'a of his father. If you know (in
your hearts) that you will be his helpers and fighters against
his enemy, and that our lives will be given on behalf of him, then write to him and tell him of that. But if you fear
failure and weakness, do not temp the man (to risk) his own
they declared, "indeed we will fight his enemy and our
lives will be given of behalf of him."
write to him" concluded Sulayman. They dispatched
their letter with 'Abd Allah b. Musma al-Hamdani and 'Abd
Allah b. Walin who found al-Husayn in Makkah on the 10th
Ramadhan 60AH and delivered the first of what was to be more
than 150 letters from Kufa to follow it.
Husayn replied to them by stating:
the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
From al-Husayn b. 'Ali,
To the leaders of the believers and the Muslims.
...The main statement of your great men is: "There is no
Imam over us. Therefore come, through you, may God unite us
under truth and guidance." I am sending you my brother,
Muslim b. 'Aqil, who is my cousin and my trustworthy
(representative) from my House. If he writes to me that the
opinion of your leaders and of the men of wisdom and merit
among you is united in the same way as the messengers who have
come to me have described and as I have read in your letters,
I will come to you speedily. God willing. For by my life, what
is the Imam except one who judges by the Book, one who upholds
justice, one who professes the religion of truth, and one who
dedicates himself to the essence of God.
Greetings." (al-Mufid, 1981)
Husayn ('a) summoned Muslim b. 'Aqil and told him to prepare
for his journey and his task. He said something like;
the whole world knows that you are one of the bravest
warriors. It is just possible that seeing you in Kufa some
people may think that our intention is to fight Yazid. Take
your two sons Muhammad and Ibrahim with you. When they see you
with such young children, they will know that our intentions
are peaceful" (Ziaraat.com).
b. 'Aqil had travelled with the caravan of al-Husayn ('a) with
his wife and children from Medinah to Makkah. He was from
there dispatched with Qays b. Mushir al-Saydawi and Umara b.
Abd Allah al-Saluli and Abd Allah and Abd al-Rahman, the sons
of Shaddad al Arhabi, (al-Mufid,1981, p305) where he first
travelled directly back to Medinah to pray at the graveside of
Prophet Muhammad ('s). He said goodbye to the dearest members
of his family before he set off with two hired guards into the
desert toward Kufa, Iraq.
his two guards became lost and died of severe thirst, Muslim
b. 'Aqil was only just able to find his way, by the Grace of
the Almighty, to a place known as al-Maqid. From this place he
wrote to al-Husayn ('a) stating that the guards had died and
that their lives themselves had only been saved in the last
moments when they found water. He requested al-Husayn ('a) to
release him of his duty and replace him with another due to
this bad omen as he saw it. Where upon Muslim received a reply
from al-Husayn ('a) stating:
am afraid that your urging me in the letter to relieve you
from the task which I sent you on is only cowardice. Therefore
go on with your task which I gave you. Greetings."
Muslim said that it was not for himself that he was afraid,
and continued his journey onto Kufa (al-Mufid, 1981).
('a) Arrives in Kufa
arrived in Kufa on the 5th Shawwal 60 AH (Events
Calendar, 2005) accompanied by, among others, his two
young sons, Ibrahim and Muhammad, and they stayed in the house
of al-Muktar b. Abi 'Ubayda, known today as the house of
Muslim b. al-Musayyib. He was thereafter visited by the Shias
in groups during which he would read them the letter of al-Husayn
('a) at which they pledged allegiance to Imam Husayn ('a)
through Muslim b. 'Aqil. The groups visiting this house became
as numerous as 18,000 persons which drew attention to the
location of Muslim b. 'Aqil.
evil newly appointed Caliph,Yazid b. Mu'awiya came to learn that the Shi'a were paying allegiance to Imam
Husayn ('a) through Muslim and replaced his then governor of
Kufa, al-Nu'man b. Bashir, who was a man who preferred to stay
in obedience to God, with the cruel, cold-hearted 'Ubayd Allah
b. Ziyad who was at that time the governor of Basra. Yazid
told 'Ubayd Allah to go to Kufa and "search for Ibn 'Aqil
as if you were looking for a bead until you find him. Then
bind him (in chains), kill him or expel him" (al-Mufid,
Ibn Ziyad arrived in Kufa, he had veiled his face and was
wearing a black turban and the people did not recognise him as
being Ibn Ziyad. The Kufans, who were expecting the
arrival of Imam Husayn ('a), mistook the arriving entourage as
being the Imam and therefore, rushed to greet him. The crowds became so
thick that the governor could not ride on until one of his
guards cried out, "This is the governor 'Ubayd Allah
b. Ziyad." The shocked crowds quickly dispersed out of fear.
When Muslim b. 'Aqil heard of the arrival of Ibn Ziyad and
fearing for his safety, he moved into the house of Hani b. 'Urwa,
a devoted Shi'a and nobleman of Kufa, and kept the location
secret except among a few trusted devotees.
Capture of Hani b.'Urwa ('a)
Ziyad summoned a retainer, Ma'qil, who he tasked to act a spy
and pretend he was Shi'a in order to locate the whereabouts of
Muslim b. 'Aqil. With 3,000 dirhams in his hand and by falsely
convincing Muslim b. 'Awsaja al-Asadi of his sincerity, Ma'qil
was invited into the presence of Muslim b. 'Aqil where he
began to collect information, which he regularly reported to
Ibn Ziyad. Muslim's host, Hani b. 'Urwa, began fearing for
himself and stopped attending the Majlis of the new governor by
saying that he was sick. However, it was reported to Ibn Ziyad
that Hani was seen sitting in the doorway of his house every
evening and thus he was aggressively called to the presence of
the new governor.
violent argument occurred between Hani b. 'Urwa and Ibn Ziyad
wherein Ibn Ziyad produced his spy, Ma'qil, and said: "Do
you know this man?" Hani replied, "Yes"
as he realised that that man had acted as an informant of all
their information and brought it to Ibn Ziyad. Hani offered to
release Muslim b. 'Aqil from his protection so as he may leave
his house, but Ibn Ziyad retorted, "You will never
leave me unless you bring him!" At which Hani
replied, "No, by God, I will not bring him to
you." Hani continued, "By God, indeed there
would be shame and disgrace for me were I to hand over one who
has come under my protection and is my guest, while I am still
alive and sound. I can hear; I see well; I have a strong arm
and many helpers. By God, if I was the only one without any
helper, I would not hand him over until I had died on his
behalf" (al-Mufid, 1981, p313). Ibn Ziyad said, "Bring
him to me or I will have your head cut off" and then
he began to strike at Hani's face with his cane until he had
broken his nose and blood and flesh sprinkled his beard. They
then threw him into one of the rooms and locked the
the news that Hani had been captured, 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj
thought he had been killed and therefore advanced on the
palace with the people of Madhhij and surrounded the palace as
they considered the murder of their colleague to be a great
crime. Ibn Ziyad heard this commotion outside and called for
one of his guards to look at the state of Hani and report to
them that he had not been killed. Hani heard his people
outside and became hopeful of being rescued. The women of
Murad had also gathered and were crying out;
of grief for him! O bereavement of him!"
('a) Attempted Uprising
the condition of Hani's arrest had been reported directly to
Muslim b. 'Aqil by 'Abd Allah b. Hazim who was ordered to
summon Muslim's supporters. The Kufans were gathered and
assembled before him, numbering up to 4,000 men of which
Muslim appointed leaders over the tribes of Kinda, Madhhij,
Tamim, Asad, Mudar and Hamdan. "Muslim b. 'Aqil has
come!" cried out a date-seller rushing into the area
of the palace as Ibn Ziyad retreated into the palace and
locked the gates, surrounded only by his thirty guardsmen,
twenty nobles, his family and entourage. (al-Mufid,
the noblemen, Ibn Ziyad called on Kathir b. Shihab to go out amongst
the Madhhij and make them desert Muslim; he called on
Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath to go to the Kinda and Hadramawt; al-Qa'qa
al Dhuhuli, Shabath b. Rib'i ul Tamimi, Hajjar b. Abjar
al'Ijli and Shamir b. Dhi al-Jawshan al'Amiri. Until nightfall
these nobles attempted to convince their people to desert
Muslim b. 'Aqil.
noblemen who were sent to break up the uprising were heard to
people, stay with your families. Do not hurry into evil
actions. Do not expose yourselves to death. These are the
soldiers of the Commander of the Faithful Yazid, who are
approaching. The governor has given God a promise that if you
persist in fighting him and do not go away by nightfall, he
will deprive your children of their (right to a) state
allotment of money ('ata') and he will scatter your soldiers
in Syrian campaigns. He will make the healthy among your
responsible for the sick and those present responsible for
those who are absent until none of those rebellious people
will remain who has not tasted the evil consequences of what
their hands have earned." The nobles all spoke in
similar vein and it was completely successful in dispersing
any support Muslim had in the city of Kufa.
the people heard what they said, they began to disperse. Men
started saying to their sons and brothers, "Tomorrow,
the Syrians will come against you. What are you doing, causing
war and evil? Come away." Women were approaching
their sons and brothers saying, "Go, the people will
be enough (without) you." This continued until by the
time Muslim prayed the evening prayer in the great Mosque,
there were left only thirty men with him. When he saw this, he
left with these men and headed for the gates of Kinda. When he
reached there, only ten men were left by his side and after he
had passed there, no-one was left to walk alongside Muslim b.
'Aqil, the emissary of al-Husayn ('a) (al-Mufid, 1981).
wandered through the unfamiliar streets of the treacherous
city, searching for ways to exit the city or a place to take
refuge. He came to rest in a doorway of the house of a kind
lady, whose name was Taw'a, whereupon she provided drinking
water for him. Taw'a had been
a freed slave wife of al-Ash'ath b. Qays before marrying Usayd al-Hadrami
with whom she had a son named Bilal. At enquiry as to who he was and why he remained seated
at her door, Muslim is reported to have said to her;
"I have neither house
nor clan in this town... I am Muslim b. 'Aqil. These people
have lied to me, incited me (to action) and then abandoned
upon realising that he was from the Household of the Prophet
('s), kindly showed him hospitality and refuge in a room
within her house. Her son, Bilal, who had been out with the
people hunting for Muslim ('a), returned home and became
suspicious as to why his Mother was frequenting the small room
and forced her to reveal her secret to him.
Hunt for Muslim ('a) - The First Betrayal
Ziyad had become aware that the people outside the palace had
dispersed and once he had the darkest places within the entire
Mosque checked, it was confirmed that there was no man lying
in ambush for the governor. He then threatened all the
inhabitants of the city that they must do night prayer in the
Mosque. They all came, after which Ibn Ziyad ordered all exit
points of Kufa to be sealed, he ordered a thorough search for
Muslim b. 'Aqil and gave Husayn b. Numayr full authority over
all the houses in Kufa, he offered rewards to those who
brought Muslim in, and sent lookouts onto all the roads.
next morning, the son of Taw'a, Bilal, approached 'Abd al-Rahman
b. Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath and told him that Muslim b. 'Aqil
was taking shelter in his mother's house, where after 'Abd al-Rahman
approached his father Mohammad, who was in the presence of Ibn
Ziyad, and informed them. "Get up and bring him to me
immediately!" shouted Ibn Ziyad.
men from the tribal group of Qays approached the house and as
Muslim had heard their approach, he went out to meet them with
his sword drawn. He fought them off like a true brave warrior
of the Household of the Prophet ('s). He was struck on the
mouth by Bakr b. Humran al-Ahmari, cutting his lips and
knocking out two teeth and then Muslim struck him a terrible
blow on the head and then another cutting a nerve along his
shoulder almost reaching his stomach. When the people saw that
they went on top of the rooves and began pelting stones and lighted
canes at him. He had been hurt and wearied by the fighting; he
became out of breath and so leant against the wall of the
laneway. Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath offered Muslim a guarantee of
security and repeated it several times. A mule was brought and
Muslim was put on it, however the people gathered around and
took his sword from him. At this he was in distress for his
life and with eyes filled with tears, he cried;
is the first betrayal."
He was then taken to
the palace door of Ibn Ziyad and all he could think of was al-Husayn
('a) and his family on their way to Kufa (al-Mufid, 1981,
Martyrdom of Muslim
waiting at the door of the palace, Muslim requested water to
quench his burning thirst. When he attempted to drink from a
cup, his wound filled the cup with blood and he was therefore
unable to drink it. He attempted this a second and third time
and finally said;
"Praise be to God, if it had been a
provision granted me (by God), I could have drunk it."
Muslim entered the palace in the presence of Ibn Ziyad he
refrained from giving Salam. When questioned on this, he
stated, "If he wants my death, what is (the point of)
my greeting him with words of peace? If he did not want my
death, my greetings (of peace) to him would be profuse."
Ziyad declared, "By my life you will be killed!" Following
this, Muslim requested to make his will to one of his fellow tribesmen. Of those present there was only one man to
whom he had kinship, 'Umar b. Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, who
reluctantly heard Muslim's last requests. In his will Muslim
requested his sword and armour to be sold in order to pay a
seven hundred dirham dept to a man in Kufa, his body to be
properly buried and for a message to reach the Imam, al-Husayn
('a), to tell him to turn back and not continue onto Kufa. Of
his requests, Ibn Ziyad only agreed to one of those being
carried out, and that was the sale of his property - sword and
armour, not the burying of his body nor the message being sent
to al-Husayn ('a) (al-Mufid, 1981, p323).
him up to the top of the palace," ordered Ibn Ziyad, "and
cut off his head, (throw it to the ground) and make (his body)
follow it (to the ground)."
man to whom Muslim had struck with his sword, Bakr b. Humran
al-Ahmari, was the man summoned to do the dreadful deed. He
went with Muslim to the roof when Muslim said "Allahu
Akbar!" He sought God's forgiveness and prayed for
blessings on the Apostle saying, "O Allah, judge between
us and a people who have enticed us, lied against us and
deserted us." His head was cut from his body and
thrown to the ground. His body was made to follow it. This was
the ninth day of Zhul Hijjah, The Day of Arafah.
this, Muhammad b. al-Ash'ash approached Ibn Ziyad concerning
Hani b. 'Urwa and requested for him to be handed over to
himself. Ibn Ziyad instead of this, ordered Hani to be taken
to the marketplace and have his head cut off. Hani was
violently taken in chains to the marketplace where sheep were
sold and he cried out, "O Madhhij! There is no one
from Madhhij for me today! O Madhhij, where is Madhhij?"
But he realised there was no man who was there to help him. He
then squeezed his hand out from the chains and cried, "What
is there, stick, knife, stone or bone, with which a man can
defend his life?"
Turkish retainer, Rashid, struck at Hani's head but it had no
affect. Hani shouted, "To God is the return. O God to
Your mercy and Your paradise." Then Rashid struck
another blow and cut off Hani's head.
these two martyrdoms, the heads of Muslim and Hani were sent
to Yazid b. Mu'awiya and their bodies were dragged through the
Kufa marketplace by their legs. May Allah rest their souls and
may Peace be upon them.
you do not know what death is, then look at Hani in the
market-place and Ibn 'Aqil:
(Look at) a hero whose face has been covered with wounds and
another who fell dead from a high place.
The command of the governor struck them (down) and they
became legends for those who travel on every road.
You see a corpse whose colour death has changed and a
spattering of blood which has flowed abundantly;
A young man who was (even) more bashful than a shy young
woman, was more decisive than the polished blade of a
Is Asma riding in safety a mount which moves at walking pace
while Madhhij urged him to seek vengeance
And Murad wander around him? Are all of them in fear of the
questioner and the questioned?
If you do not avenge your two brothers, then be harlots
satisfied with little.
- 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr al-Asadi (al-Mufid, 1981,
the day of Ashura, 10 Muharram 61AH, 'Abdullah the 15 year old
son of Muslim b. 'Aqil, was martyred alongside Imam Husayn
('a) and the Household of the Prophet ('s). He was the second
member of the House to fight after that of al-Husayn's ('a) 18
year old son, Ali al-Asghar ('a). In three attacks, he killed
many enemy soldiers after which Yazid bin ar-Raqqad al-Juhni
shot him with an arrow from which he protected his head with
his arm. "The arrow pierced his arm and lodged into his
forehead sewing the two together. Failing to dislodge his arm
from his forehead, he sent an outcry saying, "O
Lord! They trampled on and humiliated us. So, God kill them as
they killed us."
he was in that state, a man thrust his spear into his heart
causing his death. Yazid bin Ar-Raqqad approached the dead
body and plucked his arrow from his forehead causing the arrow
to come off leaving the arrowhead buried into the
(Tale of Husain's Martyrdom, 1424, VNM).
caravan of al-Imam al-Husayn ('a) was travelling
toward the city of Kufa in Iraq, during the month of Zhul Hijjah
60AH and into the month of Muharram 61AH. The news of the
martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil ('a) did reach Imam Husayn ('a)
and it was Imam Husayn's ('a) destiny that he continue the
journey until he reached the sands of Karbala near the banks
of the Euphrates River.
Husayn ('a) was the "Zibhe Azeem"- the
greatest sacrifice, martyred accompanied by his closest family
members, The Household of The Prophet ('s) and
his ('a) most devoted companions on the
tenth day of Muharram, the Day of Asshura.
is the heartbeat of every Shi'a, commemorated every year
across the globe in days gone by, today and those to come. The
Events of the Day of Asshura, the events leading up to that
day and those that followed it, build the foundation of
Asshura, the salvation of Islam.
Allah (s.w.t.) bless the martyrs of Karbala and the martyrs of
Kufa -Muslim b. 'Aqil and Hani b. 'Urwa and the ladies and the
children of The Household of the Prophet of Islam ('s)
who were taken prisoner at Karbala through to Kufa and on to
everyone tremble at the thought of being questioned directly
Momineen Ali ('a) on the Day of Judgement, if they have in
any way opposed his ('a) righteous Shi'a.
'Ali b. Abi Talib ('a) said:
"No one can establish the rule of Allah except he who
shows no relenting (in the matter of right), who does not
behave like wrongdoers and who does not run after objects of
greed" ('Ali b. Abi Talib, 1989).
May Allah (swt)
rain down down his peace and blessings on Muhammad and on Ale
Muhammad and may Allah (swt) and the Ale Muhammad ('a)
forgive me for any mistakes in my humble writings.
Abi Talib (1989). Nahjul Balagha. Saying 109. Qum,
Iran: Ansariyan Publications, p513.
al-Mufid (1998). Al Amaali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid.
Translated by Mulla Asgharali M.M. Jaffar. Middlesex,
United Kingdom: The World Federation of KSI Muslim
al-Mufid (1981). Kitab al-Irshad: The Book of Guidance. London,
England: Balagha Books in conjunction with The Muhammadi
Ahmed Ali (1964). Husain: The Saviour of Islam. Qum,
I.R.Iran: Ansariyan Publications.
Talib. [Online]. http://mushkilkosha.no-ip.org/abutalib.htm.
Retrieved 13th January 2005.
Calendar. [Online]. http://www.ahlebait.s5.com/sum.htm.
Retrieved 13th January 2005.
Syed Hamid Ali Shah Moosavi (2004). [Online]. Message of
Quaid-Millat-e-Jafariya Pakistan, on the occasion of
Holy Birth Anniversary of Hazrat Ghazi Abbas Alamdar (A.S).
Retrieved 13th January 2005.
Aqeel (a.s.). [Online]. http://www.ziaraat.com.
Retrieved Tuesday, 18 March 2003 9:56:05 AM.
of Husain's Martyrdom. [Online]. http://www.victorynewsmagazine.com/
Retrieved 13th February, 2005.
Author: Hj S. Abidin
Photographer/Illustrator: Hj S.Abidin
and Islamic Occasions
Map: Hj M. Al-Zahra
Chief Editor: Hj
Production: Hj S. Abidin
Date: 16 February 2005/ 06 Muharram 1426
Modification Date: 27th November, 2008.
Destiny of Muslim b. 'Aqil ('a)
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