Published on 7 Ramadhan, 1425/
21st October, 2004.
Study on al-Qu'ran al Kareem
By Hj S. Abidin
“Blessed is He in Whose hand is
and He has power over all things”
the Kingdom, Sovereignty or Dominion, refers to that within
which all things exist and over all of which is Allah’s
Power and Omnipotence. The Kingdom includes all things visible
and invisible to us stretching to the unimaginable conceptions
of space and beyond it.
Mir Ahmed Ali (1995) has described the term Mulk as a
very wide and comprehensive expression that covers all that is
matter and energy, all of which are under the universal
authority of the Lord Creator and the Owner of the Universe.
Mankind has been informed of the Oneness of Allah, the
Absolute and the Supreme Authority over all Things, far beyond
false claims of multiple deities or gods and that the Kingdom
belongs only to Allah (swt).
term Mulk has been used in many contexts throughout the
teachings of Islam incorporated in al-Qur’an, Dua’as,
Ahadith, but most especially in the Asma ul Husna.
of the Asma ul Husna (The Beautiful Names of Allah), Malikul
Mulk is translated into English to mean “Master of
the Kingdom” or “The Eternal Owner of
O Allah, Master of the Kingdom! You give the kingdom to
whomsoever You please and take the kingdom away from
whomsoever You please, and You exalt whomsoever You please and
abase whomsoever You please;
in Your hand in goodness; surely You have power over all
affects His will in His kingdom however He pleases, letting
some live and others perish. The Mulk in this context
means the kingdom, and the Malik is the Omnipotent, the
Most Powerful. All things in existence are included in His
kingdom, so His is one kingdom because all things in it are
somehow connected to one another, although they may be
regarded as many, they constitute one entity, one kingdom.
occurs in the original Arabic text of this verse:
O Allah, Master of the Kingdom!”
(Qur’an, Ale Imran 3:26).
derivative is “al-malakoot” which exists in “Glory
to the One in Whose hand is the kingdom of all things, and to
Him you shall be brought back” (Qur’an, Yasin 36:83).
Whom does the kingdom belong this Day?
To Allah, the One, the One Who subdues (all)."
"And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the
earth, and to Allah is the eventual return."
Messenger of Allah (s) is quoted saying that Allah’s
Greatest Name, the one because of which He will respond if
thereby invoked, exists in the verse saying,
O Allah, Master of the Kingdom!”
(Qur’an, 3:26), (ibne Fahd Helli, 1999, p565/566).
is also mentioned in Dua’a Iftitah, recommended to be
recited every night in the Holy Month of Ramadhan, whereby it
be To Allah the owner of sovereignty, Who sets the course of
the skies and the stars controls the winds, causes the
daybreak, and administers authority, the Lord of the
worlds.” (VNM, 2002).
Maalikil Mulki mujril fulki Musakhkhirir riyaah’I faaliqil
is’baah’I dayyaanid Deeni Rabbil A’alameen”
referring specifically to the Kingdom and the Oneness of Allah
as the One Who has Power over all things, Dua’a Iftitah
mentions this in two sections as follows:
praise be to Allah, Who has not taken unto Himself a wife, nor
a son, and Who has no partner in sovereignty, nor any
protecting friend through dependence. Magnify Him with all
magnificence” (VNM, 2002).
Lad’ee lam yattakhid s’aahi’batan wa laa waladaa wa lam
yakullahoo shareekun fil Mulk wa lam yakullaho waliyyum
minad’d’ulli wa Kabbirhu Takbeeraa” (Qummi,
praise be to Allah, Who has no opposition to His rule, nor any
challenge to His commands.”
Lad’ee laa Muz’aadda lahoo fee Mulkihee wa laa Munaazi-a’
lahoo fee Amrihi”
67th Surah of al-Qur’an al-Kareem, Surah al-Mulk, is one of
the virtuous Surahs recommended to be recited on specific
auspicious occasions during the blessed months, but especially
during the Holy Month of Ramadhan. Revealed in Mecca, this
Surah is said to be the 77th Surah to be handed down to Holy
Prophet Muhammad (‘s).
"Ayyam ul Bayz" ( Bright Days) of Rajab,
Shoban and Ramadhan, Surah al-Mulk is recommended to be
recited in each of twelve rakaats, along with Surah al-Fatihah,
and Surah Yasin, in the nights of the 13th, 14th and
15th of these months during these most auspicious days and
nights. On the 15th Night of Ramadhan, which is also the
auspicious occasion of the Mawled of al-Imam al-Hassan bin
‘Ali (‘a), Surah al-Mulk is recommended to be
recited in each of 6 raka’ats along with Surah Fatihah,
Yasin, and al-Ikhlas, (Qummi 2004).
al-Mulk is also recommended to be recited in other auspicious
times during the Holy Month of Ramadhan including the 6th
night, where it is recited 13 times in each of 4 raka’ats
and during one of the expected Night of Power, Laylatul
Qadr, the 27th night of Ramadhan, after Ghusl, Surah
al-Mulk can be recited in each of 4 raka’ats following Surah
al-Fatihah, (Qummi 2004).
3 and 4 of Surah al-Mulk have been specifically
mentioned in repelling the evil eye as reported by Jafar as-Sadiq
(‘a) in the Tibb al-A’imma (1991, p177) with the
invocation of Allah and His words:
not the unbelievers then beheld that the heavens and the earth
were a mass all sewn up, and then We unstitched them and of
water fashioned every living thing? Will they not believe?"
thy gaze; seest thou any fissure? Then return thy gaze again,
and again, and thy gaze comes back to the three dazzled and
al-Mulk and the Grave
recite Surah al-Mulk on the grave is an act that saves
the dead man from the punishment in the grave. Allamah
Qutubuddin Rawandi relates from Ibne Abbas, who says that once
a person pitched a tent on a ground not knowing that there was
a grave beneath. Thereafter he started reciting Surah al-Mulk.
Suddenly he heard a voice saying that the Surah gives
salvation. He related this incident to the Holy Prophet (‘s)
who replied that:
this Surah frees a person from the punishment in the
Kulaini also narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (‘a) who
said that the recitation of Surah al-Mulk saves one from the
punishment in the grave.” (Qummi, 1999).
of the Surah
Ali (1995) has categorised Surah al-Mulk into two main
sections containing certain important topics. The two sections
are described as “God’s is the Kingdom of the
Universe” and “The straying one and those guided
aright being not alike”. The important topics discussed
in the Surah include:
The Kingdom (in its entirety) is in God’s hand Who hath
power over all things
Death and life created to try man
There is no congruity in the creation
The heaven which is starred, is the lowest or the nearest
Those who fear the Lord in secret, shall have the forgiveness
and the great reward
He who goes straight is the one better guided and not the one
who walks prone on his face
summary, the Surah is said to contain that God’s is the
Kingdom, death and life caused to prove the goodness and the
evil of the souls, the perfection of God’s creation, the
confession of those committed to hell and that God knoweth
everything hidden and manifest, (Ahmed Ali, 1995).
regard to misconceptions regarding the Oneness (Tawhid) of
Allah (swt), Ahmed Ali states, “Far be such
misconceptions about God the Omnipresent and the Omnipotent
Lord Who owns and holds the supreme and the exclusive absolute
authority over every part and every particle of the world
visible and the invisible, known and yet unknown to us.
Further in the Tafsir of the Surah, he states that man is
warned of God’s Ever-Triumphant Might, sufficient to execute
His will and to punish the offenders and at the same time, the
hope is given of availability of God’s forgiveness and His
pardon for those who sincerely seek it.
the Kingdom of Allah (swt), everything is arranged in such
perfect order and harmony with the motions of the bodies in
space so perfectly regulated by the Universal Law, that
nowhere in the Mulk is there the tiniest flaw or an
irregularity nor any incongruity in the working laws of
nature. This, states Ahmed Ali, proves the absolute unity of
the One singular and supreme authority ruling over all.
Fadhlalla Haeri (1984) in his commentary on four Surahs, The
Mercy of Qur'an and The Advent of Zaman, states that Surah al-Mulk
“illustrates and proves the comprehensive totality of
lordship” and how all of creation is the proof of tawhid
- divine unity. He also stated that the entire creation is “a
result of the blessedness of He Whose creation is His kingdom
- everything in it is in His hand and comes from His power.
Every creational entity, therefore, derives its power directly
from the Creator.”
Haeri discusses the kingdom of Allah being manifest in seven
layers with each layer being placed upon another, being
connected yet retaining its own characteristics. He states
that “it is also found amongst the ahadith (prophetic
traditions) and the sayings of the Imams that the earth has
seven layers. In fact, there is a common supplication in which
it is said: Rabbu-s-samawati-s-sab`i wa rabbu-l
aradini-s-sab'i, the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of
the seven earths.”
relation to the misguided ones being led to the hellfire,
Shaikh Haeri says that “all forms of shaytan or deviation
lead one to the adhabu-s-sa`ir, the chastisement of the
blazing fire - of which there is nothing worse.”
this Surah, Maududi (1987) has expressed that similar to other
early revealed Surahs in Mecca, Surah al-Mulk has, on one
hand, the teachings of Islam introduced briefly, and on the
other, the people living in heedlessness have been aroused
from their slumber in a most effective way. Like other early
Surahs, this one is directed to make the people shun
heedlessness, to make them think, and to arouse their dormant
(1987, p6) explains that the Surah concludes with a question
left for the people to ponder over and that is, “if the
water [which has come out from the earth at some place in the
desert or hill country of Arabia and upon which depends your
whole life activity,] should sink and vanish underground, who
beside Allah can restore to you this life-giving water?”
Tomb of Fatimah Masuma
the tomb of Fatimah Masum, the sister of Holy Imam ‘Ali bin
Musa al-Ridha, which lies inside the great Masjid in Qum,
Iran, there are several calligraphic inscriptions in Kufic
and Naskh scripts. The tomb is built with bricks and
are beautifully decorated with different coloured glass upon
which the following inscriptions can be found:
Ayat al-Kursī (2:255), written in Naskh
Surah al-Mulk written in Naskh script, in gold lettering
Various Ayats, written in Naskh script, in gold lettering
Various Ayats, written in Kūfī
Other Ayats from the Qur’an
the glass tiles around the grave from above to below are
engraved Surah Yasin, Surah ar-Rahman, Surah al-Mulk, Surah Hal Ata
and Surah al-Qadr.
These inscriptions were written by Muhammad ibn Abī Tāhir
ibn Abī al-Husain.
an unreferenced hadith, it has been reported that this Surah
should be recited so frequently that the believer should
attempt to learn it off by heart. It has also been stated that
a Mu’min should have this Surah written on one’s Kafan.
a sunni hadith, Prophet Muhammad (‘s) said,
is my desire that Surah Mulk should be in the heart of every
Mu’min” (Ummah.net, 2004).
Amirul Mo'mineen as part of his speech in Sermon 18 from Nahjul
the outside of the Qur'an is wonderful and its inside is deep
(in meaning). Its wonders will never disappear, its amazements
will never pass away and its intricacies cannot be cleared
except through itself" (1989, p92).
Through the many beautiful proofs the Almighty Creator has
bestowed on us this Ramadhan and Ramadhans past, we can only
ask Him in His Oneness to accept our prayers, our fasting, our
zakat and our ibadah. O Allah, Master of the Kingdom!
in the words of Imam Ali (alaihi salam), this humble servants
concludes; "May Allah (swt) forgive me what Thou
knowest about me, more than I do. If I return (to the sins)
Thou return to forgiveness. My Allah, forgive me what I had
promised to myself by Thou didst not find its fulfilment with
me. My Allah, forgive me that with what I sought nearness to
Thee with my tongue, but my heart opposed and did not perform
it. My Allah, forgive me winkings of the eye, vile utterances,
desires of the heart and errors of speech (Imam 'Ali,
Sermon 76, p149).
Bayt Digital Project Team (2004). Fatimah Masum in Qum.
retrieved October 2004.
'Ali (1989). Nahjul Balagha. I.R. Iran: Ansariyan
A. & Ispahany, B. (1991). Islamic Medical Wisdom: The Tibb
al-A’imma. London, U.K.: The Muhammadi Trust.
Abul A’la Maududi (1987). Meaning of the Qur’an. Vol.
XV-XVI. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications.
Fadhlalla Haeri (1984). The Mercy of Qur'an and The Advent of
Zaman - Commentary on Four Suras. P.O Box 730, Blanco TX
78606, USA: Zahra Publications.
retrieved October 2004.
Abbas al-Qummi (2004). Supplications, prayers and Ziarats:
Call on Me, I answer you. Dua Iftitah, p170. Qum, I.R. Iran:
Abbas al-Qummi (1999). Manazelul Akherah: Stages of the
Hereafter. Translated by Aejaz Ali Turab Husain Bhujwala.
Mumbai, India: Madinatul Ilm Islamic Centre.
Ahmad ibne Fahd Helli (1999). Odattol Daee: The Asset of
Supplication. The Best Names of Allah, p565. Translated by Ali
Akbar Aghili Ashtiani. Qum, I.R. Iran: Ansariyan Publications.
Mir Ahmed Ali (1995). Tafsir on The Holy Qur’an, Second
Edition. New York, U.S.A.: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an, Inc.
(2004). The Excellence Of Surah Mulk. (Online). http://www.ummah.net/Al_adaab/Quran_Majid/
retrieved October 2004.
News Magazine (2002). Dua’a Iftitah. (Online). http://www.victorynewsmagazine.com/DuaaIftitah.htm
retrieved October 2004.
Author: Hj S. Abidin
Chief Editor: Hj Nurzaynab El-Fatah
Production: Hj S.
7 Ramadhan, 1425/
21st October, 2004.
Modification Date: 27th
Publication ID: 05alMulk. Al-Mulk-The Kingdom
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