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Malik ul Mulk

Al-Malik- one of the 99 names of Allah (swt.)
Al-Malik- one of the 99 names of Allah (swt)


The Tomb of Fatimah Masoom in Qum, Iran

The Tomb of Fatimah Masoom in Qum, Iran on which is carved Surah al-Mulk.

"Verily this Surah frees a person from the punishment in the grave". Prophet Muhammad (s)"

The Shrine of Fatimah Masoom in Qum, Iran.

The Shrine of Fatimah Masoom in Qum, Iran.

Shrine of Fatimah Masoom, Qum, Iran

The Shrine of Fatimah Masoom in Qum, Iran.

Surah al-Mulk

1.The Kingdom (in its entirety) is in God’s hand Who hath power over all things

2.Death and life created to try man

3.There is no congruity in the creation

4.The heaven which is starred, is the lowest or the nearest

5.Those who fear the Lord in secret, shall have the forgiveness and the great reward

6.He who goes straight is the one better guided and not the one who walks prone on his face.

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Bismillah ir Rahman ir Raheem
Published on 7 Ramadhan, 1425/ 21st October, 2004.

Al-Mulk-The Kingdom
A Study on al-Qu'ran al Kareem

By Hj S. Abidin
Surah al-Mulk
Blessed is He in Whose hand is the kingdom, 
and He has power over all things” 
(Qur’an, 67:1)


Al-Mulk, the Kingdom, Sovereignty or Dominion, refers to that within which all things exist and over all of which is Allah’s Power and Omnipotence. The Kingdom includes all things visible and invisible to us stretching to the unimaginable conceptions of space and beyond it.

S.V. Mir Ahmed Ali (1995) has described the term Mulk as a very wide and comprehensive expression that covers all that is matter and energy, all of which are under the universal authority of the Lord Creator and the Owner of the Universe. Mankind has been informed of the Oneness of Allah, the Absolute and the Supreme Authority over all Things, far beyond false claims of multiple deities or gods and that the Kingdom belongs only to Allah (swt).

The term Mulk has been used in many contexts throughout the teachings of Islam incorporated in al-Qur’an, Dua’as, Ahadith, but most especially in the Asma ul Husna.


One of the Asma ul Husna (The Beautiful Names of Allah), Malikul Mulk is translated into English to mean “Master of the Kingdom” or “The Eternal Owner of Sovereignty”.

Allah has said:

"Say: O Allah, Master of the Kingdom! You give the kingdom to whomsoever You please and take the kingdom away from whomsoever You please, and You exalt whomsoever You please and abase whomsoever You please; 
in Your hand in goodness; surely You have power over all things"

 (Qur’an, 3:26).

Malikul-Mulk affects His will in His kingdom however He pleases, letting some live and others perish. The Mulk in this context means the kingdom, and the Malik is the Omnipotent, the Most Powerful. All things in existence are included in His kingdom, so His is one kingdom because all things in it are somehow connected to one another, although they may be regarded as many, they constitute one entity, one kingdom.

“Malikul-Mulk” occurs in the original Arabic text of this verse: 

“Say: O Allah, Master of the Kingdom!” 
(Qur’an, Ale Imran 3:26).

Another derivative is “al-malakoot” which exists in “Glory to the One in Whose hand is the kingdom of all things, and to Him you shall be brought back” (Qur’an, Yasin 36:83).

"To Whom does the kingdom belong this Day? 
To Allah, the One, the One Who subdues (all)." 
(Qur’an 40:16).

  "And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and to Allah is the eventual return." 
Qur’an, 24:42).

The Messenger of Allah (s) is quoted saying that Allah’s Greatest Name, the one because of which He will respond if thereby invoked, exists in the verse saying, 

“Say: O Allah, Master of the Kingdom!” 
(Qur’an, 3:26), (ibne Fahd Helli, 1999, p565/566).

Dua’a Iftitah

Malikul-Mulk is also mentioned in Dua’a Iftitah, recommended to be recited every night in the Holy Month of Ramadhan, whereby it states:

“Praise be To Allah the owner of sovereignty, Who sets the course of the skies and the stars controls the winds, causes the daybreak, and administers authority, the Lord of the worlds.” (VNM, 2002).

“Alhamdulillahi Maalikil Mulki mujril fulki Musakhkhirir riyaah’I faaliqil is’baah’I dayyaanid Deeni Rabbil A’alameen” (Qummi, 2004).

Al-Mulk, referring specifically to the Kingdom and the Oneness of Allah as the One Who has Power over all things, Dua’a Iftitah mentions this in two sections as follows:

“All praise be to Allah, Who has not taken unto Himself a wife, nor a son, and Who has no partner in sovereignty, nor any protecting friend through dependence. Magnify Him with all magnificence” (VNM, 2002).

“Alhamdulillahi Lad’ee lam yattakhid s’aahi’batan wa laa waladaa wa lam yakullahoo shareekun fil Mulk wa lam yakullaho waliyyum minad’d’ulli wa Kabbirhu Takbeeraa” (Qummi, 2004).

"All praise be to Allah, Who has no opposition to His rule, nor any challenge to His commands.”

“Alhamdulillahi Lad’ee laa Muz’aadda lahoo fee Mulkihee wa laa Munaazi-a’ lahoo fee Amrihi”

Surah al-Mulk

The 67th Surah of al-Qur’an al-Kareem, Surah al-Mulk, is one of the virtuous Surahs recommended to be recited on specific auspicious occasions during the blessed months, but especially during the Holy Month of Ramadhan. Revealed in Mecca, this Surah is said to be the 77th Surah to be handed down to Holy Prophet Muhammad (‘s).

Surah al-Mulk

During the "Ayyam ul Bayz" ( Bright Days) of Rajab, Shoban and Ramadhan, Surah al-Mulk is recommended to be recited in each of twelve rakaats, along with Surah al-Fatihah, and Surah Yasin, in the nights of the 13th, 14th and 15th of these months during these most auspicious days and nights. On the 15th Night of Ramadhan, which is also the auspicious occasion of the Mawled of al-Imam al-Hassan bin ‘Ali (‘a), Surah al-Mulk is recommended to be recited in each of 6 raka’ats along with Surah Fatihah, Yasin, and al-Ikhlas, (Qummi 2004).

Surah al-Mulk is also recommended to be recited in other auspicious times during the Holy Month of Ramadhan including the 6th night, where it is recited 13 times in each of 4 raka’ats and during one of the expected Night of Power, Laylatul Qadr, the 27th night of Ramadhan, after Ghusl, Surah al-Mulk can be recited in each of 4 raka’ats following Surah al-Fatihah, (Qummi 2004).

Ayahs 3 and 4 of Surah al-Mulk have been specifically mentioned in repelling the evil eye as reported by Jafar as-Sadiq (‘a) in the Tibb al-A’imma (1991, p177) with the invocation of Allah and His words: 

"Have not the unbelievers then beheld that the heavens and the earth were a mass all sewn up, and then We unstitched them and of water fashioned every living thing? Will they not believe?"

"Return thy gaze; seest thou any fissure? Then return thy gaze again, and again, and thy gaze comes back to the three dazzled and weary "
(Al-Mulk 67:3-4).

Surah al-Mulk and the Grave

"To recite Surah al-Mulk on the grave is an act that saves the dead man from the punishment in the grave. Allamah Qutubuddin Rawandi relates from Ibne Abbas, who says that once a person pitched a tent on a ground not knowing that there was a grave beneath. Thereafter he started reciting Surah al-Mulk. Suddenly he heard a voice saying that the Surah gives salvation. He related this incident to the Holy Prophet (‘s) who replied that:

"Verily this Surah frees a person from the punishment in the grave".

Sh. Kulaini also narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (‘a) who said that the recitation of Surah al-Mulk saves one from the punishment in the grave.” (Qummi, 1999).

Contents of the Surah

Ahmed Ali (1995) has categorised Surah al-Mulk into two main sections containing certain important topics. The two sections are described as “God’s is the Kingdom of the Universe” and “The straying one and those guided aright being not alike”. The important topics discussed in the Surah include:

  • The Kingdom (in its entirety) is in God’s hand Who hath power over all things

  • Death and life created to try man

  • There is no congruity in the creation

  • The heaven which is starred, is the lowest or the nearest

  • Those who fear the Lord in secret, shall have the forgiveness and the great reward

  • He who goes straight is the one better guided and not the one who walks prone on his face

In summary, the Surah is said to contain that God’s is the Kingdom, death and life caused to prove the goodness and the evil of the souls, the perfection of God’s creation, the confession of those committed to hell and that God knoweth everything hidden and manifest, (Ahmed Ali, 1995).

In regard to misconceptions regarding the Oneness (Tawhid) of Allah (swt), Ahmed Ali states, “Far be such misconceptions about God the Omnipresent and the Omnipotent Lord Who owns and holds the supreme and the exclusive absolute authority over every part and every particle of the world visible and the invisible, known and yet unknown to us. Further in the Tafsir of the Surah, he states that man is warned of God’s Ever-Triumphant Might, sufficient to execute His will and to punish the offenders and at the same time, the hope is given of availability of God’s forgiveness and His pardon for those who sincerely seek it.

Within the Kingdom of Allah (swt), everything is arranged in such perfect order and harmony with the motions of the bodies in space so perfectly regulated by the Universal Law, that nowhere in the Mulk is there the tiniest flaw or an irregularity nor any incongruity in the working laws of nature. This, states Ahmed Ali, proves the absolute unity of the One singular and supreme authority ruling over all.

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri (1984) in his commentary on four Surahs, The Mercy of Qur'an and The Advent of Zaman, states that Surah al-Mulk “illustrates and proves the comprehensive totality of lordship” and how all of creation is the proof of tawhid - divine unity. He also stated that the entire creation is “a result of the blessedness of He Whose creation is His kingdom - everything in it is in His hand and comes from His power. Every creational entity, therefore, derives its power directly from the Creator.”

Shaykh Haeri discusses the kingdom of Allah being manifest in seven layers with  each layer being placed upon another, being connected yet retaining its own characteristics. He states that “it is also found amongst the ahadith (prophetic traditions) and the sayings of the Imams that the earth has seven layers. In fact, there is a common supplication in which it is said: Rabbu-s-samawati-s-sab`i wa rabbu-l­ aradini-s-sab'i, the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the seven earths.”

In relation to the misguided ones being led to the hellfire, Shaikh Haeri says that “all forms of shaytan or deviation lead one to the adhabu-s-sa`ir, the chastisement of the blazing fire - of which there is nothing worse.”

In this Surah, Maududi (1987) has expressed that similar to other early revealed Surahs in Mecca, Surah al-Mulk has, on one hand, the teachings of Islam introduced briefly, and on the other, the people living in heedlessness have been aroused from their slumber in a most effective way. Like other early Surahs, this one is directed to make the people shun heedlessness, to make them think, and to arouse their dormant conscience.

Maududi (1987, p6) explains that the Surah concludes with a question left for the people to ponder over and that is, “if the water [which has come out from the earth at some place in the desert or hill country of Arabia and upon which depends your whole life activity,] should sink and vanish underground, who beside Allah can restore to you this life-giving water?”

The Tomb of Fatimah Masuma

On the tomb of Fatimah Masum, the sister of Holy Imam ‘Ali bin Musa al-Ridha, which lies inside the great Masjid in Qum, Iran, there are several calligraphic inscriptions in Kufic and Naskh scripts. The tomb is built with bricks and are beautifully decorated with different coloured glass upon which the following inscriptions can be found:

  • Ayat al-Kursī (2:255), written in Naskh script

  • Surah al-Mulk written in Naskh script, in gold lettering

  • Various Ayats, written in Naskh script, in gold lettering

  • Various Ayats, written in Kūfī script

  • Other Ayats from the Qur’an

On the glass tiles around the grave from above to below are engraved Surah Yasin, Surah ar-Rahman, Surah al-Mulk, Surah Hal Ata and Surah al-Qadr. These inscriptions were written by Muhammad ibn Abī Tāhir ibn Abī al-Husain.

Other Related Ahadith

In an unreferenced hadith, it has been reported that this Surah should be recited so frequently that the believer should attempt to learn it off by heart. It has also been stated that a Mu’min should have this Surah written on one’s Kafan.

In a sunni hadith, Prophet Muhammad (‘s) said,

“It is my desire that Surah Mulk should be in the heart of every Mu’min” (, 2004). 


As Amirul Mo'mineen as part of his speech in Sermon 18 from Nahjul Balagha:

"Certainly the outside of the Qur'an is wonderful and its inside is deep (in meaning). Its wonders will never disappear, its amazements will never pass away and its intricacies cannot be cleared except through itself" (1989, p92).

Through the many beautiful proofs the Almighty Creator has bestowed on us this Ramadhan and Ramadhans past, we can only ask Him in His Oneness to accept our prayers, our fasting, our zakat and our ibadah. O Allah, Master of the Kingdom! 

And in the words of Imam Ali (alaihi salam), this humble servants concludes; "May Allah (swt) forgive me what Thou knowest about me, more than I do. If I return (to the sins) Thou return to forgiveness. My Allah, forgive me what I had promised to myself by Thou didst not find its fulfilment with me. My Allah, forgive me that with what I sought nearness to Thee with my tongue, but my heart opposed and did not perform it. My Allah, forgive me winkings of the eye, vile utterances, desires of the heart and errors of speech (Imam 'Ali, Sermon 76, p149).


Ahlul Bayt Digital Project Team (2004). Fatimah Masum in Qum. (Online). retrieved October 2004.

Imam 'Ali (1989). Nahjul Balagha. I.R. Iran: Ansariyan Publications.

Newman, A. & Ispahany, B. (1991). Islamic Medical Wisdom: The Tibb al-A’imma. London, U.K.: The Muhammadi Trust.

S. Abul A’la Maududi (1987). Meaning of the Qur’an. Vol. XV-XVI. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications.

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri (1984). The Mercy of Qur'an and The Advent of Zaman - Commentary on Four Suras. P.O Box 730, Blanco TX 78606, USA: Zahra Publications. (Online). retrieved October 2004.

Sheikh Abbas al-Qummi (2004). Supplications, prayers and Ziarats: Call on Me, I answer you. Dua Iftitah, p170. Qum, I.R. Iran: Ansariyan Publications.

Sheikh Abbas al-Qummi (1999). Manazelul Akherah: Stages of the Hereafter.  Translated by Aejaz Ali Turab Husain Bhujwala. Mumbai, India: Madinatul Ilm Islamic Centre.

Shiekh Ahmad ibne Fahd Helli (1999). Odattol Daee: The Asset of Supplication. The Best Names of Allah, p565. Translated by Ali Akbar Aghili Ashtiani. Qum, I.R. Iran: Ansariyan Publications.

S.V. Mir Ahmed Ali (1995). Tafsir on The Holy Qur’an, Second Edition. New York, U.S.A.: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an, Inc. (2004). The Excellence Of Surah Mulk. (Online).
retrieved October 2004.

Victory News Magazine (2002). Dua’a Iftitah. (Online). retrieved October 2004.

Author: Hj S. Abidin
Photographer/Illustrator: Unknown
Chief Editor: Hj Nurzaynab El-Fatah
Production: Hj S. Abidin
Published Date:
7 Ramadhan, 1425/ 21st October, 2004.
Modification Date: 27th November, 2008.
Publication ID: 05alMulk. Al-Mulk-The Kingdom
Copyright: © Victory News Magazine, 2010


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